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Ch 3 Health disparities associated with race and ethnicity

Health disparities statistics

Chapter 3 of “What Pharmacists Need to Know About Race and Ethnicity” presents the data documenting disparities in mortality, morbidity, provision of health care, and other health indicators by race and ethnicity. The attached infographic highlights differences in life expectancy. Students are always startled to see the data and it always provokes questions and interest.

Health disparities statistics

Health disparities occur along the causal pathway from exposures and risk factors to all health outcomes.

The chapter explores disparities in life expectancy, mortality, incidence of disease, risk factors, and access to care, allowing students to explore the disparities along the pathways from causal factors to health outcomes. Students apply their skills in epidemiology, data analysis and statistics and gain a deeper understanding of how health disparities are manifested.

The figures and data are drawn from a range of government sources including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and Health Resources and Services Administration. All provide extensive documentation and resources for further study, such as the CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report.

Ch 2 Classification of race and ethnicity in the United States

How are race and ethnicity defined in the US?

In Chapter 1 of “What Pharmacists Need to Know About Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities, ¬†we spoke about race and ethnicity as social constructs. In Chapter 2 we pivot to describe the process used by the United States government uses to develop operational definitions of race and ethnicity to be used in carrying out government activities. It starts with the US census, where data are collected every 10 years to provide information about the US population. The definitions developed for the Census must be used by all federal agencies, as well as any other organization receiving federal funds. This covers pretty much everyone doing research on health disparities.

Classification of race and ethnicity is an unsatisfying process for a reason – it is a social construct and not based in science or biology.

Here’s the infographic.

Classification of race and ethnicity

Chapter 2 infographic

Ch 1 Concepts of race and ethnicity

An infographic introducing the main concepts of race and ethnicity in Chapter 1 of the text, What Pharmacists Need to Know About Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities.

Before we start thinking about racial and ethnic health disparities, let’s learn a little about the concepts of race and ethnicity, ethnocentrism and racism. Many times we use these words loosely, but they have specific meanings, and sometimes a long history of changing meanings. In the 19th century, race was thought of as a biological feature, but in the 21st century we understand that racial labels represent social constructs.
Concepts of race and ethnicity